Finely Tuned Questions – Part III

RulersIn an initial post an argument for the existence of God flowed naturally from the extraordinary degree of fine-tuning of the universe.  The argument is offered again:

Premise 1.  The fine-tuning of the universe is due to either physical necessity, chance, or design.

Premise 2.  The fine-tuning of the universe is NOT due to physical necessity.

Premise 3.  The fine-tuning of the universe is NOT due to chance.

Therefore it due to design.

Premise 2 was argued favorably in a prior post.  The argument stems that is not guaranteed that any universe that exists is fine-tuned for life.  Hence, the negation of the second premise is fallacious.  The third premise is more intricate and is argued here.

roulette

Enter Las Vegas! Intricate dining, exquisite entertainment, with casinos lining the strip beckoning you to come in.  Once in a casino, you will find a place void of clocks with fabricated and bright lighting to make it hard to decipher night from day.  They want you to stay.  Sit down at a table and you’ll be enticed to play with free alcohol and frequent dining service.  You’ll be enticed to play games of probability, for which the house employees have been trained to take advantage of in the long run.  You hear the sound of Roulette and the ball smacking against the intricate groves between the range of possibilities.  It lands on black 15.  An exchange of chips begins as bets are placed for the next spin.  It lands on black 15 again.  Another exchange of chips.  Another spin and black 15 again.  People exchange awkward glances and the bets are now beginning to stack up on that black 15.  Will it come again?  Another spin and another black 15!  Is this chance or design?  You can imagine that if this happened at a roulette table that game would be stopped.  Maintenance workers would come quickly to investigate and service the table.  Something must be wrong with it in order to hit black 15 so many times!

This, my friend, is the incredulous, incomprehensible feature of our universe.  Black 15 has been hit again, again, and again.  Consecutively.  Now, of course if you spin the table 20 times there is a chance that Black 15 will come up 20 times.  So should you be surprised if that occurs?  Or would you be inclined to investigate why that did occur?   Of course, it we have enough spins or iterations then wouldn’t this situation be likely to occur?   Yes, but only if you have enough spins.  In fact, the very reason to push for a multiverse hypothesis is to increase the odds of obtaining our universe!  Hence, its mere suggestion in academic circles is complimenting the fact that our universe is fine-tuned!

Are we part of an infinite ensemble of universes?  Not quite.  First, if there exists an actually infinite number of universes a slew of logical fallacies are had.  Just consider Hilbert’s Hotel. Nor is this what is being proposed by the dominant multiverse hypothesis, M-theory.  This theory proposes a finite number of possibilities on the order of 10^500.  Then, how many of these universes are life-permitting?  The subset of life-permitting universes is abysmally small.  However, it gets worse.  The probability of our universe’s extremely low entropy condition is estimated at 10^(-10^123)  while the chances of our solar system coming into existence by random collisions is estimated to be 10^(-10^60) (see Penrose, pgs. 762-765)!  This means that our universe is extremely rare even among the small subset of possible universes!

Hence, we are back at the casino at the roulette table.  No one has come to stop the game and investigate if the game is rigged.  What is your next bet?  I’ll tell you mine:

“Señor, I’ll take Black 15.”

Let it roll.

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Finely Tuned Questions – Part II

In a prior post an argument for the existence of God flowed naturally from the extraordinary degree of fine-tuning in order for universe to be life-permitting.  The argument is offered again:

Premise 1.  The fine-tuning of the universe is due to either physical necessity, chance, or design.

Premise 2.  The fine-tuning of the universe is NOT due to physical necessity.

Premise 3.  The fine-tuning of the universe is NOT due to chance.

Therefore it due to design.

Here we will argue in favor of the second premise.

Of course that very fact that I am writing this is evidence that a life-permitting universe exists.  Of course you may adhere to a worldview that states everything is illusory, but then who may I ask is reading this?  Not to mention that this worldview is also an illusion, hence a built-in defeater!  Nevertheless, a life-permitting universe exists as a result of fundamental constants being tuned just so.  But why were chosen this way?  In other words, why are they not other values?  The values are not determined by the discovered laws of nature.  Rather, they are substituted into such equations such that we may study aspects of our observable universe.   Hence, if the fine-tuning of the universe is of physical necessity then any values that are chosen must be life-permitting!?  But clearly this is not the case.

Oh, but what of the potential great unifier of physics, M-theory?  Not so fast!  M-theory does not eradicate the degree of fine-tuning, in fact it complicates the situation further!  In fact, it predicts that there is a wide range of around 10^500 possible universes all consistent with the same laws that we have, but varying in their respective constants.  Hence M-theory points to a multitude of universes that are not life-permitting.  In fact, it presents an even greater challenge in unlikelihood of the existence of any life-permitting universe!  Not to mention, M-theory needs 11 dimensions to work.  Why 11?  Why not 10 or 12?  Why perfectly 11?  Hence, there is no evidence supporting that a life-permitting universe is a physical necessity.  It is far more reasonable to expect a universe to not be life-permitting.

In the following post the third premise will be discussed.

“Where were you when I laid the earth’s foundation? Tell me, if you understand.”  – Job 38:4

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